Table 1 Effect of Bifidobacterium on cytokine secretions in vitro and in vivo
Bifidobacterium speciesCytokineCell typeModelRef.Method
B. longumLow levels of IL-12Splenic cellsSplenic cells from Balb/c cultured with heat-killed microorganisms (1 µg/ml) for 2 days[67]ELISA
B. breveLow levels of IL-12p70
B. adolescentisLow levels of IL-12p70
B. longum↓TNF-α, ↑IL-10 ↓IFN-γPBMC from coeliac patientsPBMC treated with faecal contents from coeliac disease patients[68]ELISA
B. bifidum↓TNF-α, ↑IL-10 ↓IFN-γ
B. adolescentis IM38↑TNF-α, ↑IL-1β, ↑IL-10, ↓IL-17Caco2 and mouse peritoneal macrophagesHigh-fat diet-induced obesity[69]ELISA
B. infantis 35 624↓TNF-αPBMCLPS-stimulated PBMC from chronic fatigue syndrome, UC and psoriasis patients[70]ELISA
B. bifidum↑IL-8T84 and Caco2 cellsLPS-stimulated cells[71]ELISA
B. infantis 35 624↓IFN-γ, ↓IL-12, ↓TNF-αSplenocytesMouse IL-10 KO colitis model. Splenocytes stimulated with S. typhimurium[72]ELISA
↓IFN-γ, ↓TNF-αMononuclear cells from PP
B. longum↓IL-1α, ↓TNF-αMucosal biopsiesUC patients treated with bifidobacteria[73]ELISA
B. infantis 35 624↑IL-10, ↑TGF-βMLNIsolated from UC and CD patients[74]ELISA
↑IL-10, ↑TNF-αPBMCs
↑IL-10, ↑TNF-αPBMC-DCs
B. bifidum BGN4↓IFN-γ, ↓TNF-αSplenocytesT-cell transfer model[75]ELISA
B. breve Yakult↑IL-10PBMCPBMC isloated from UC patients[76]ELISA
B. breve Yakult↓IL-8HT-29TNF-α-stimulated HT-29[76]ELISA
B. bifidum Yakult
B. bifidum S17↓IL-1β, ↓IL-6Colonic cellsTNBS-induced colitis[77]ELISA
B. lactis Bb12↑IL-10, ↑TGF-βPBMCPBMC isloated from UC patients[78]ELISA
B. breve (BM12/11, BM13/14)↑IFNγ ↑TNFα,PBMCPBMC isolated from healthy donors[39]Cytokine Bead Array
B. animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and↑IFNγ ↑TNFα,PBMCPBMC isolated from healthy donors
B. bifidum (KCTC5082)↑IFNγ ↑TNFα,PBMCPBMC isolated from healthy donors
B. bifidum (IF10/10, A8, DSM20239 and LMG13195)↑IL-17 ↓IFNγ ↓TNFα,PBMC isolated from healthy donors

Abbreviations: UC, ulcerative colitis; PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; CD, Crohn's disease; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; PP, Peyer's patches; ↑, increased levels; ↓, decreased levels.