TableĀ 1 Common OA publishing models*
Gold OA journal
  • Author, institution, or funder may be asked to pay article processing charges (APCs)

  • Many OA journals offer institutional memberships that include a reduction or waiver in APCs

  • Peer-reviewed

  • Authors usually retain copyright

  • Typically associated with a Creative Commons Attribution License

  • Access is immediate and permanently free

Green OA (self-archiving)
  • Helps authors fulfill funder and institutional mandates

  • Author negotiates rights to deposit preprint article (prior to peer review) in subject or discipline-related archive, an institutional archive, or author's website

  • Author negotiates rights to deposit post-print article (after peer review, but without copyediting and formatting) for public release, usually following an embargo period

  • In some institutions, publication in green OA is not considered a valid form of a peer-reviewed publication

Hybrid OA journal
  • Offered as an alternative publication route by a subscription-based journal

  • Author or funder pays a fee to designate OA in the regular issue of the journal

  • Journal may choose to convert a paid article to OA following an embargo period (delayed OA)

* A comprehensive listing of OA status by journals and publishers is available at